Osteochondrosis is a disease in which degenerative and dystrophic processes occur that affect the tissues of the spine. A person has damage to the intervertebral discs, as well as to the surfaces of the joints and the vertebrae themselves. Treatment methods for osteochondrosis are diverse. And they are associated with a specific area of the spine where the disease develops.
In the course of the development of the disease, bone tissue and ligaments are most often affected. It should be noted that a person notices the development of the disease only when the appearance of pain is observed, the level of sensitivity is disturbed, atrophy of muscle tissue develops, as well as malfunction of internal organs.
Osteochondrosis is an unpleasant disease, especially when the stage is quite severe. Getting rid of the disease is not easy. In this case, it is very important not to delay treatment and choose the most effective method.
Today, more than half of the world's population suffers from this disease. Basically, osteochondrosis begins to bother those people who have reached the age of 35-40 years. Therefore, effective treatment of osteochondrosis is the key to a healthy back and spine.
The process of disease development
Osteochondrosis develops gradually, and therefore has several stages of development.
This stage begins with the dehydration of the nucleus pulposus. Due to this position of the intervertebral disc, it is disturbed and tears form in the annulus. At this stage, the development of the disease does not go further than the affected disc.
It is characterized by the fact that improper placement of the intervertebral disc tightens the attachment of the muscular corset. As a result, the muscles and ligaments begin to relax, leading to excessive mobility of the adjacent vertebrae. The vertebrae are displaced towards one another, as a result of which spondylolisthesis develops.
It is characterized by the strongest changes that occur on the intervertebral discs. The formation of herniated discs begins, damage in the articular apparatus of the musculoskeletal system is observed, subluxations appear, arthrosis develops.
This stage of the disease is due to the fact that the affected areas are undergoing changes that the body is trying to get used to. At this stage, the body tries to cope with the excessive mobility of the vertebrae and activate the spine to maintain vital functions. So, bone formations begin to grow on the surface of the vertebrae, which leads to injuries of the nerve endings in them. After that, the vertebra is immobilized, and the manifestations of the disease appear internally.
diagnosis of the disease
Establishing the necessary methods of treating osteochondrosis requires a correct and comprehensive diagnosis, which will make it possible to determine in which area the disease is developing and for what reasons. Depending on where the focus of the disease is concentrated, there are such types of osteochondrosis:
- cervical - characterized by pain in the upper limbs and shoulder girdle, the pattern of manifestations is such that headaches appear, turning into arterial migraines, tinnitus.
- chest - the pain syndrome is localized in the chest, the pain shoots to other internal organs of the peritoneum and chest.
- lumbosacral - accompanied by pain in the lower back, radiating to the lower extremities and sacrum, in addition, there may be a loss of sensitivity of the muscle fibers of the affected area.
- A combination of several types of osteochondrosis is a common case in medical practice, so complex treatment of osteochondrosis is required to avoid many complications.
treatment and its types
There are two types of treatment for osteochondrosis - conservative and surgical. The use of one type or another depends entirely on the severity and stage of development of the disease. In addition, the internal reserves of the state of the organs and the vitamin base in the body are very important for the healing process.
Considering the treatment of osteochondrosis as a conservative method, as well as another period of rehabilitation after it, it should be noted that an integrated approach is important. It is based on the simultaneous use of several methods of therapy. Modern medicine reduces the method of conservative treatment to two main components: treatment with drugs and treatment with the help of hardware devices. However, it must be said that both types do not take into account the body's own powers of recovery, the treatment is carried out as if the patient were not present. It is this aspect that leads to a longer recovery time, sometimes treating osteochondrosis can be useless for this reason.
Treatment of osteochondrosis by a conservative method, as well as a rehabilitation period, includes several methods of treating diseases:
- health-promoting exercise complex;
- isometric kinesitherapy;
- manual treatment;
- massage and hydromassage;
- spinal traction treatment;
- Treatment of osteochondrosis by stimulation methods;
- ultrasonic and laser treatment;
- mobilization vacuum therapy;
- diet and proper nutrition;
- Therapy to restore and maintain the psyche;
- drug therapy.
It is important to say that by choosing the right many different medical methods and methods in minimal quantities, for example, in the case of acute attacks of the course of the disease.
However, drug therapy is required in any case, therefore drug treatment of osteochondrosis may include the following methods:
- Pain relief - taking various analgesics and painkillers;
- suppression of inflammation - taking drugs to eliminate inflammatory processes in the places of localization of the disease;
- antispasmodics - drugs used to suppress muscle spasms;
- Antioxidants - taking products high in vitamins;
- activation of blood microcirculation;
- Psychedelics - drug maintenance of a normal mental state.
Treatment of osteochondrosis by surgical intervention is used in cases where, due to the progressive development of the disease, a person may lose their ability to work. Before deciding on an operation, a comprehensive examination and consultation with specialists is necessary.
It is important to know that all patients with suspected osteochondrosis are referred for MRI. If this examination shows that there are abnormalities in the body that exceed the norm, the doctor may recommend surgery. However, in most cases where a person does not complain of severe pain, surgery is not prescribed.
Surgical treatment of osteochondrosis is required in two cases:
- if a person has a sign of a ponytail;
- when a person cannot control the process of urination and defecation.
Cauda equina syndrome is a neurological disorder affecting the lower spine. That is, in the spinal cord there is a bifurcation of nerve roots. At the same time, the operation cannot be avoided if a person feels pain when palpating the nerve endings.
He will note that surgical intervention for osteochondrosis is carried out in two stages. First, specialists eliminate the cause that causes pain, and then use methods to stabilize the spine. If they speak medical language, decompression and stabilization surgeries are performed simultaneously. The methodology of surgical treatment can be different. The choice of a specific method depends only on the individual course of the disease and depends primarily on the choice of the surgeon.